Dinalungan

LOCATION

The municipality of Dinalungan is situated at the Northern part of the Aurora Province, roughly 80 kilometers from Baler, the capital town of the province. Its lies between 16o 04’ 47” to 16o 17’ 04” north latitudes and 121o 44’21” to 121o 59’34” east longitudes. The area is bounded on the Northwest by Quirino Province, on the southeast by the Casiguran Sound, and on the northeast and southwest by the municipality of Casiguran and Dipaculao, respectively.

POLITICAL SUB-DIVISION AND LAND AREA

The municipality of Dinalungan is composed of nine (9) Barangays with an aggregate of land area of 26,348.51 ha. Barangay Abuleg is the largest Barangay with largest land area of 5,419.23 ha. (20.6%), while the Zone I in the Poblacion has the lowest land area of 26.4 ha. (0.1%).

LAND AREA BY BARANGAY

Barangay Area(ha) %
AbulegDibaraybayDitawini 1/

Mapalad

Nipoo 2/

Paleg

Simbahan

Zone I

Zone II

5,419.233,318.542,585.00

4,956.90

2,797.50

3,624.67

3,593.23

26.37

28.37

20.6512.609.81

18.81

10.62

13.75

13.64

0.10

0.10

Total 26,348.51 100.00

CLIMATE

Climate is collectively to as the long-term conditions of weather, which include precipitation levels (rainfall), temperature, wind direction and magnitude, relative humidity and other elements.

TYPE OF CLIMATE

Dinalungan like the other municipalities of Aurora Province is situated in an area where a type IV climate of the Corona’s Classification exists. This classification system is an empirical system based on the temporal distribution of rainfall derived from the northeast monsoon (November to February) and the southwest monsoon (July to September). This is the reason why the rainfall is more or less evenly distributed throughout the year.

ELEMENTS OF CLIMATE

RAINFALL

The high and extreme rainfall events are most likely to occur in the period to October, November and December (438.4 mm. 567.7 mm, and 421.1 mm) when condition in the western Pacific are more conducive to the formation of tropical depressions, storm and typhoons and the normal tract of typhoons is across Luzon. A “Direct Hit” in Aurora that can be lead to heavy rainfall intensities, for example was the rainfall amount of 401.1 mm on 13 March 1971.

TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY

The recorded annual average maximum, minimum and mean temperatures in the municipality in the municipality of Dinalungan were 31oC, 21.4oC, respectively.

At sea level, the municipality has an atmospheric temperature of 26.5oC, while temperature lapse rate is close to 0.5oC per 100 meters increase in elevation. Thus, at the highest point of the municipality, which is 1,621 meters, the temperature is about 18oC.

The relative humidity ranges from a maximum of 89 percent to a minimum of 86 percent with an annual mean of 87.5 percent.

WIND AND TROPICAL CYCLONE

The normal wind speed in Aurora is low, around 2 meters per second throughout the year. In Dinalungan, the wind direction is northerly during the months of January to April and again during the months of October and December and southerly during the months of May and September.

Very high wind speeds in Aurora are cause by the exposure of the coast to tropical cyclones. The highest recorded gust in Casiguran where Dinalungan is affected was 75 meters per second (270KpH) on 03 September 1985. However due to sub-optimal locations of weather stations, it is undoubtedly that actual gust speeds exceed these values in more exposed location in the province.

Record shows the national average of 19.8 tropical cyclones per year enter the Philippine Area of responsibility (PAR). Of this total, 3.4 cyclones or 17 percent affect directly the province of Aurora. The main risk months occur from June to November, with an average of 0.5 per year for each of these months, that is to say, every other year. The average drop to 0.2 or about once in five year during the month of May and December.

ACCESSIBILITY

Dinalungan can be reached from Baler via the national road (coastal road). This stretch of road is more than 90% of gravel or earth filled with the exception of concreted portion from Baler to Poblacion of Dipaculao and road sections that traversed barangays Simbahan and Malapad plus several hundred meters along the approach towards the Poblacion Dinalungan.

The southernmost barangays of Dinalungan (Ditawini and Abuleg) have the most difficult coastal road section as these traverse portion of the Sierra Madre Mountains where landslide oftentimes occur during rainy season.

Only minor roads branches out from the main road as most Barangay centers are established along the national road following a strip linear development system the except Poblacion which is based on a grid development system. Thus, the barangays of Dinalungan is considered not a major problem to be reckoned with. What the road network needs is widening and improvement (concreting).

TOPOGRAPHY

Like the other municipalities of Aurora Province, Dinalungan is generally rugged and mountainous. About 56% of its total land area is moderately high to high elevation highlands exceeding 500 meters above sea level. These highlands (mountainous) are source of rivers, streams and mountain springs draining towards the Pacific Ocean. The rest of the municipality’s land area (44%) is composing of hills (low elevation), lowlands and coastal areas.

DISTRIBUTION OF ELEVATION CLASSES

Most of the mountain portions of the municipality of Dinalungan have steep (30-15%) to very steep (>50%) slopes accounting foe an aggregate area of about 19,000 hectares or 75% of the municipality land area. These steep to be generally shallow. While areas of the municipality with undulating to moderately steep slopes are the most abused part of the municipality where Kainging activities are concentrated. The rest are lowlands with slopes ranging from 0 – 8% and where agricultural activities and build up areas are found. The extent and spatial distribution of slopes categories.

LAND CLASSIFICATION

Lands of Dinalungan are classified into two (2) major land classifications, viz: forestland and alienable and disposable land (A & D land). About 85% of the municipality of land area is covered by forestland classification and 15% classified A and D land.

The present sub-classification of forestland and alienable and disposable land is found in the municipality’s existing land uses.

GEOLOGY

Three rock formations are found in Dinalungan. These include the recently formed Sedimentary Rock (R), the Neogene’s Intrusive Igneous Rock (NI) and the Undifferentiated Metamorphic Rock (Kpg).

R –Recent. This formed of landslide and avalanche deposits consisting of rounded and angular boulders of volcanic breccias and quartz diorite, sometimes it set in a futureless, sticky, orange-brown clay matrix. This fan deposits consists of poorly sorted conglomerates in an earthly matrix. This fan deposits and older landslide were occasionally covered by loose mud, silt, sand and gravel. The recently formed rocks are found in the lowland portion of the municipality.

NI – Neogene’s Intrusive Rock. These rock formations are igneous rock type consisting largely of infra-Miocene quartz diorite mostly batholiths and stock of some lacolith, also sills and dikes, including granodiorite porphyry facies and late Miocene dacite; Lava widespread in early Miocene and rock sequences.

This rock formation is found mostly at the southern part of Dinalungan as well as areas between the forestland and lowland.

KPG – Undifferentiated. This rock type is undifferentiated as to age, probably cretaceous and paleogene. Its composition is largely greywacke and methaphorposed shale interbedded and or intercalated with spillitic basic and intermediate flows and or pyroclastic. More the half of the land area of Dinalungan is covered by this rock formation and is specifically covering the northern portions of the municipality.

SOIL

The municipality of Dinalungan is composed of four (4) major physiographic units/ namely: soils of the lowland, soils of the upland, soils of the mountains and soil o the hills. These physiographic units are further sub-divided into fifteen (15) smaller units.

LOWLAND SOILS

Lowland soils are considered young and formed from fluvio-marine sediments and alluvial materials. These are sub categories into coastal and alluvial landscape. The coastal landscape consists of active tidal flats (02) and beach ridge and swales (08). While alluvial landscape consists of deep soil collu-alluvial fans (18 B/C) and the swallow gravelly phase collu-alluvial fans (18 A/Y)

UPLAND SOILS

Upland soil are found in areas characterized as slightly to moderate dissected volcanic hills with complex smooth and sharp ridge (80%); the slightly to moderately dissected low dioritic hills with complex smooth and sharp ridge, rolling to very steep slopes (98); and the severely dissected high dioritic hills with rolling to very steep slopes (101). These areas are the most abused portions of the municipality where hill farming activities are concentrated.

MOUNTAIN SOILS

Mountain soils are found on areas covered by land management units with include the moderately dissected metamorphic mountains, rolling to moderately steep slopes (131P); the severely metamorphic mountains, steep to very steep slopes, shallow soils (131 Q/RA); the moderately dissected dioritic mountains, rolling to moderately steeps slopes (135 P); the severely dissected dioritic mountains, steep to very steep slopes, shallow spoils (135 Q/R); and the severely dissected complex volcanic very steep slopes, shallow soils (137 4/RA).

The miscellaneous land types include built-up areas (146) and river washes (152). These land types have the same soils type as the earlier described lowland soil.

POPULATION SIZE AND GROWTH RATE

The recorded population during the 1975 census was decrease by 19% compared to the population in 1970. This decreased in population maybe attributed to the critical situation during the said period where encounters between government forces and the group opposing the government (communist) resulted to mass evacuation of the population to safe place, such as to nearby municipalities. But in 1980, the population shored up significantly by 41% with continuous increase in 1990 to 1995 by29% and 21 % respectively.

The population increase in 1980, 1990 and 1995 was resulted of the gradual improvement on the peace and order situation as well as attraction made by logging operations in Dinalungan stopped in 1995, the population again registered a decrease of about 2%. Some families engaged in logging left the area; others are left behind and become a hill farmer.

In terms of annual change on growth rates the year between 1975 and80 posted the highest positive change with 8.2% while the years between 1970 and 1975 registered the lowest annual change of growth rates with 3.8%.

POPULATION DENSITY

The municipality of Dinalungan is generally sparsely populated based on the population density of 30 persons/km2. In terms of population density by Barangay, Zone II and I (Poblacion) recorded the highest with 5,125 and 4,488 persons/ km2 respectively. The rest of the Barangay recorded a population density ranging from 18-31 persons/km.

The high population density in the Poblacion maybe attributed to the concentration of economic activities, which are common in urban areas, as well as the limited spatial dimensions of these areas. While the low population

Densities in the peripheral barangays of the Poblacions are primarily attributed uninhabited large forestland areas, with fewer populations lived in localized settlement areas.

AGE STRUCTURE

The 1999 population of Dinalungan was relatively young with more than half (54%) of its population being less than 20 years of age. While a segment of population with age range of 21-65 years old and above 65 years old accounted for 44 and 2%, respectively.

HOUSEHOLDS NUMBER AND SIZE

Dinalungan had a total household population of 1,505 with an average household size of 5.3. In terms of household number by Barangay, Zone II (Poblacion) recorded the highest household number 283, while the lowest is Ditawini with 97. On the household size, the highest and lowest are Barangay Nipoo and Abuleg, respectively.

LABOR FORCE BY AGE GROUP

A total of 4,379 persons (54.6%) out of the 8,015 of the municipalities of population, belong to the economically active group. Males constitute about 52% while 48% are females. Not in labor force (<16, >65 years old) had a total number of 3,636 persons. Males and females ratio is almost the same between the economically active and not in labor force population.

EDUCATIONAL SERVICES

Dinalungan has a total of 8 elementary school providing venue for academic activities and supporting the educational needs of the municipality’s schooling population. The numbers of classrooms are 43 of which 20 are in Dinalungan Central School located in Zone II, Poblacion. The department of Education, Culture and Sports has employed 46 Schoolteachers providing a service to 1,624 elementary pupils’ ratio is 1:35. The aggregate are occupied by these schools is 14.44 hectares.

In the secondary level, there is no one school with 14 classrooms, is situated in Zone II (Poblacion). This school has a total population of 676 students of which 46% are females and 53% males. The school has a teaching force of 18 and land area coverage of 3 ha.

HOUSING AND BUILDING

Single house type is the dominant type of building structures in the municipality numbering 1,025 units. The majority of these houses (262 units) are found in Zone II, Poblacion. Three (3) house types are also found in the municipality. The rest of the building is constructed purposely for commercial, industrial, institutional, agricultural and other unclassified buildings.

HEALTH SERVICES

Barangay Socio-Economic Inventory data highlight that health services sector engage a total manpower of 851. Of this total, 723e family health care workers, 84 Barangay health workers and 30 trained hilots. Only 14 are regular government employees eleven (11) are assigned in the municipal health center (Poblacion) and three (3) midwives assigned in Barangay health stations.

The eleven (11) health personnel assigned in the MHO including the physician (1), nurses (2), midwives (2), sanitary inspector (1), medical technologies (1), dentist (1), nutritionist (1), nurse aide (1) and a malaria spray man supervisor (1).

There are eight Barangay health stations providing primary health services including medicine, first aide treatment, and vaccination. Only one small drug store exists. Traditional medical practitioners (herbolaryos) remain prevalent in the remote barangays where source of basic medicine are wanting.

INDIGENOUS CULTURAL COMMUNITIES

The National Commission on the Indigenous People (NCIP) has recorded a total of indigenous people’s population of 11,238. Out of this total, 702 or 6.2% are found in the municipality of Dinalungan. The Indigenous people of this municipality are composed of 612 Igorots and 90 Dumagat with equivalent household number of 130 and 19, respectively.

The Igorots populations are mostly found in barangays Detaining and Abuleg with some families live in Barangay Nipoo, Paleg, Simbahan and the Poblacion. While the Dumagats are concentrated in Barangays Simbahan, Nipoo and some families now living in Taytay area in Barangay Dibaraybay.

The local government of Dinalungan in extending their support to this community in terms of financial, medical and technical. Moreover, the National Commission on Indigenous peoples being the officials agency of for IPs concern has a filed office in Casiguran serving as coordinating office for the rest of the northern municipalities.

SOCIAL SERVICES

The Municipal Social Welfare and Development Office under the supervision of the local chief executive is tasked to provide social and welfare services. These services are rendered by a total 21 MSWD personnel. These personnel include 1 Municipal Social Welfare Officer (1), Social Worker Officer (1), Social welfare assistant (1), Clerk (1), Day Care workers (9), and 9 community workers. Current programs include:

1. Self-Employment Assistant Kababaihan (SEA-K)

2. Assistance in Crisis Situations (AICS)

3. Comprehensive and Integrated Delivery of Social services such as: emergency Shelter Assistance, Core Assistance programs.

4. Day care Services

5. PMC

6. Referral

7. Assistance to Senior Citizen

8. Assistance of out of School Youth

9. Assistance to Women

10. CPC-Y Program

Relief operations and medical initiatives are also undertaken by provincial and national agency in Dinalungan.

RECREATIONAL FACILITIES

Several recreational facilities have already been established in the area. Basketball courts are the most common sports facilities present in all barangays. Movie houses are made possible by TV-VHS set. While the common destination of the picnic lover local people is Bulawan Falls which is presently developed as eco-tourism area and provides the most scenic picnic site in the municipality.

PROTECTIVE SERVICES

The Philippines National Police (PNP) is located inside the Municipal Hall compound of Zone II, Poblacion. It has 11 police Officers. 53 Barangay Tanods existing in all barangays except in Nipoo augment the PNP. Both the PNP and Barangay Tanods maintain peace and order situation of the community.

The municipality has no fire station; much more fire protection is the usual response of the residents.

AGRICULTURAL CROP PRODUCTION

Farming is the major source of income of the municipality of Dinalungan. Palay, coconut and banana are the primary crops planted to an area of 584, 543 and 52 hectares, respectively. Secondary crops include coffee, rambutan, root crops, citrus, corn, mango and others. Rambutan had just been introduced by DA-AIADP three years ago. Vegetables farms occupy 22.67 hectares. Generally, vegetable grows alongside with palay plots/farms or as ground crops under coconut areas. Spice farm only cover 6.13 hectares while fishery production covers a very minimal area of 2,500 m2 and grown to tilapia Species.

HOME AND COTTAGE INDUSTRY

Mat and hat weaving is the predominant type of home cottage industry in the locality of Dinalungan. This economic activity serves as additional sources of income for most housewives in the municipality. Other home cottage industries in the area include concrete hallo blocks making, charcoal making, native wine, vinegar processing, and rattan craft making.

FOREST RESOURCES

About 4,596 hectares of forestland remained (1991 forest cover inventory) out of the municipality’s 24,273 hectares of forestlands. Residential forest (logged over) accounts for 12,672 hectares while sub marginal forest and mossy forest accounted for 172 and 6,833 hectares, respectively.

Since, the forest cover the inventory in the area was done in 1991, the remaining forest may have already been reducing to a considerable extent at the time of the writing of this report (1999). The reduction might be attributed to localize illegal cutting of forest trees and proliferation of kaingin activities.

Aside from timber, minor forest products are found in the forestlands. These include Hagnaya, nito, rattan, banban and lukmoy. These minor products are major source of raw materials in the production of various handy crafts.

The municipality’s forestland is also rich in wild life both flora and fauna. Wild animals like wild pigs, deer’s, monkeys and various species of birds possibly including the Philippine Eagle (Pithecophaga Jeffereyi) are found. Likewise, various species of flora including in particular orchids thrive in the area.

WATER RESOURCES

Though the municipality is surrounded by mountains with lush forest cover, the population, particularly those living within the Poblacion, are facing domestic water supply problem. No existing free flowing in the municipality as constructing of this water facility was attempted several times but yielded negative results drillers always encounter large rocks underneath and can not be penetrated by drilling bits.

Regarding surface water, the municipality has major rivers where large volume of water flows. These include Talaytay, Dinalungan, Simbahan, Abuleg and Ditawini rivers. Some of these rivers (Talaytay, Simbahan and Dinalungan) support the water irrigation water requirements of rice land and the lowland.

MINERAL RESOURCES

The mineral resources of the municipality are young and untapped. Copper and gold are possibly among the major minerals that can be found in the area. Mining application permit flooded the office of the Bureau of mines and geo-science of the DENR in region IV. Such application covers not only in Dinalungan but the entire Province of Aurora. The influx of application for mining exploration is attributed to the enactment of Republic Act No. 7942, otherwise known as the “Philippine Republic Act of 1995”. The Act provide major incentives to mining companies which include cutting timber within their exploration area, enter privates lands and have the priority rights on the utilization of water. The mining companies applying exploration permits in Dinalungan.

TOURISM

Among the major tourist spots considered by the Municipal Planning and Development Office are: Bulawan Falls in Barangay Paleg, Bunubon Beach and Demsing Aurora Deer part in Barangay Dibaraybay, Tabon beach in Barangay Abuleg and Chavez beach in Barangay Nipoo. Other than this mentioned potential tourism sites, the municipalities still have several potential development sites.

IRRIGATION

The municipality of Dinalungan has seven (7) communal irrigation systems (CIS). These CIA support a total services area of 476 hectares giving benefits to some 391 framer beneficiaries. These irrigation infrastructures formed part of the support strategy mechanism to contribute to the full-scale implementation of the Agriculture and Fisheries modernization Act of 1997 (AFMA) under R.A. 8435. The main objective of AFMA is to modernize the agriculture and fishery sectors in order to enhance their profitability and prepare said sectors for the challenges for globalization through an adequate focused and rational delivery of necessary support services and funds.

ROAD AND TRANSPORT FACILITIES

The municipality of Dinalungan is about 80 kilometers from baler, the capital town of Aurora Province, and 235 kilometers from Dingalan (southernmost municipality of Aurora) via Palayan City. Its national road stretches from Barangay Ditawini to Barangay Nipoo with approximate distance of 28 kilometers. Out of this total length, about 0.5 kilometers each Barangays Mapalad and Simbahan is concreted or equivalent to only 3.6%. Aside from this concreted segment of the national road, about 470 meters of the 18.58 kilometers Barangay road are concreted. These are found in Barangay Abuleg (100m), Dibaraybay (300m) and Paleg (70m).

In the Poblacion the aggregate road length is 5.785 kilometers. Some 2.957 kilometers (51%) are concreted. At the present, no existing concrete bridge is found in Dinalungan. Creek’s crossings are made of two reinforced concreted pipes (RCPs). These RC pipes are found constructed across Laboy creek (Abuleg) and Labinan creek in (Simbahan). Other creek crossings are two concreted box culverts in Simbahan, and one in Abuleg. Likewise an overflow crossing has already been constructed over Mabudo River and construction of Bailey bridge.

That cross in Dinalungan River is on going.

WATER SUPPLY FACILITIES

Geological circumstances prevented the population of Dinalungan to fully harnessing ground water resources through the free flowing scheme. Because if this constraint, Shallow Tube Wells become the most promising supply of water for domestic purpose. In the rural water supply survey conducted by AIADP 2 in 1997, spring development was recommended to be the best alternative source of water. With funding support amounting to 5.3 million pesos from the AIADP 2 and with local government units counterpart along with the beneficiaries, the Dinalungan Water Supply System was installed and this support the central Barangay of the Municipality, specially the Poblacion, Dibaraybay, Paleg and possibly, in the future, Barangay Nipoo.

The distribution of the household by Barangay relying on communal faucet, and shallow wells as source of domestic water supply.

POWER SUPPLY AND COMMUNICATION

All Barangay except Ditawini and Paleg (new site) have power lines currently served by the Aurora Electric Cooperative, Inc. the source of water supply is from the two (2) power generator located in Barangay Lual, Casiguran. For the year 1999, the municipality’s consumers were able to use 12,739 KWH amounting to a coast of P82, 057.96.

Residential type dominates the most number of consumers and power consumed. Out of the total consumer 493, residential accounted for 459 or 93%. The remaining 7% consumed are attributed to commercials, public buildings and streets light.

HISTORY

The municipality of Dinalungan got its name from a river called “Dinalungari”, while this river was name coined from the names of “Dina” and “Lungan” a wife a husband, respectively of a Dumagat Tribe living in the area.

Lungan was the son of the chieftain of the Dumagat Tribe who got interested to marry the daughter of the slave family belonging to the tribe. To obtain the approval of the chieftain for the two (2) lovers’s marriage, Dina endure long year of service to the Lungan’s family. The end result was the several children produce by the couple. Unfortunately Dina and Lungan got sick and succeeding died. The memory of Dina and Lungan was instilled in the minds of their children and the succeeding generations of the tribe.

On 18 August 1926, two (2) men from outside of Aurora whose activities were hunting wild animals and collection of almaciga resin, accidentally reach the Dinalungan. They befriended the Dumagat Tribe. The two men were Eusebio Vargas and Bonifacio Vargas from San Miguel na Munti, Talevara, Nueva Ecija, Infanta Quezon, respectively.  The two left the area bringing with them wild animals and Almaciga Resin. When they went back to the area, eight families went with them and permanently settled in Dinalungan. More families followed them during the succeeding months.

In 1938, Dinalungan became part of the Casiguran with Gavino dela Cruz as the first appointed Barrio Lieutenant. Establishment of a school was given emphasized by dela Cruz  and his barrio mates with Pedro Torre Sr. as the first teacher.

The Second World War made life hard for the residents of Dinalungan. Several Prominent heads of the family including Gavino dela Cruz were killed. The Barrio of Dinalungan like other Barrios of Aurora was severely destroyed. The end of the War (1945) provided the remaining residents to rebuild the community under the leadership of Esteban Gazeta. The School was also rebuilt with Eugenio Moral and Timoteo Flores as teacher and head teacher, respectively.

It was also after the war that the Spanish and Chinese loggers arrived in the area and build logging roads in support of their logging operations.

From 1947 to 1962, seven (7) Barrio Lieutenants have succeeding administered the community. With concerted effort and one goal of the barrio leaders, the barrio of Dinalungan was converted as the municipality on 18 June 1966 through Republic Act No. 4757. It composes five barrios namely: Simbahan, Abuleg, Bungo, Balante, and Nipoo with Hon. Pablo Galolo as the first municipal Mayor.

Other municipal Mayors who came after Hon. Galolo Sr. include Hon. Calixto Hermo (1971-74), Lt. Col. Prudencio Medriano (Military Mayor for 1974-80), Hon. Douglas A. Gapusan (1986-88), Hon. Elena C. Usman (1988-98), and the present Local Chief Executive, the Hon. Marilyn B. Marques 1998 to present).

The municipality of Dinalungan has at present nine (9) barangays with the addition of Paleg, Ditawini, Dibaraybay, and Zone I and II of the Poblacion.

LOCAL OFFICIALS

Mayor Hon. Tito T. Tubigan

Vice Mayor Hon. Manuel A. Torres

Councilors

Hon. Dominador G. Curitana

Hon. Joel A. Perpose

Hon. Marlyn A. Madridano

Hon. Severino E. Del Rosario

Hon. Gene T. Alamani

Hon. Marcelino M. Galamgam

Hon. Rhodalynn R. Sioson

Hon. Larry M. Rada

BARANGAY CAPTAINS:

Brgy. Poblacion Zone I – Ulpiano Coralde

Brgy. Poblacion Zone II – Enelaida A. Galamgam

Brgy. Abuleg – Dominador T. Tabon

Brgy. Dibaraybay – Proculo F. Moral

Brgy. Ditawini – Philip Sabe

Brgy. Mapalad – Estanislao A. Rotaquio

Brgy. Nipoo – Leoncio M. Angara

Brgy. Paleg – Zaldy S. Monreal

Brgy. Simbahan – Eduardo B. Vargas

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